THE SCIENCE

Trademarked Prebiotics 

 

Livaux-

 

Consumption of kiwifruit capsules increases Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in functionally constipated individuals: a randomised controlled human trial.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29152256

https://livaux.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/LivauxWhitePaper.pdf

Overview and Uniqueness Livaux™ is a food-quality ingredient derived entirely from New Zealand gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis), with preclinical and clinical data supporting its use as a digestive health ingredient. The process to create Livaux™ begins with premium gold kiwifruit sourced exclusively from Zespri®-approved growers and harvested from the pristine orchards of New Zealand – removing the skin and seeds - then cold-drying the bright-gold nutritious flesh into unadulterated, free-flowing powder, for use in functional foods, nutraceuticals, and dietary supplements. The process to create Livaux™ is gentle and chemical / solvent-free. This results in a final product that is, essentially, lyophilized gold kiwifruit powder, chemically unchanged from the pure, non-GMO, additive-free Actinidia chinensis, from which it is derived. Livaux™ is Kosher-certified, and is also available as an organic ingredient. Livaux™ contains a unique combination of bioactive nutrients, that effectively and gently support the digestive and laxation processes. These constituents include 1) Soluble and insoluble fiber (approximately 10%; recognized universally as health-promoting ingredients), 2) Polyphenolic compounds, that can act either as direct antioxidants, or indirect antioxidants (via upregulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 [47]), 3) Prebiotic substrates including fiber, carbohydrates, and polyphenolics (as microbiome modulators: ie promoting growth of beneficial bacteria and /or inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria). A growing amount of pre-clinical and clinical research has been conducted on the beneficial effects of gold kiwifruit on human health (see above), including a large body of research on individual constituents and classes of compounds. This research supports the idea that the individual kiwifruit constituents contribute individually and in combination to the overall health effects, offering a variety of digestive, microbiome-modulating, and immune-enhancing (and other) health benefits. Clinical Evidence to Support Livaux™: Increase in F. prau Relative Abundance A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted utilizing a single dose of Livaux™ administered to healthy and functionally constipated individuals [27]. In this clinical study, participants provided fecal samples at the beginning and end of each intervention period for microbiome compositional analyses [28]. The relative abundance of the prevalent bacterial groups was determined following DNA isolation and ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, and the data on healthy and functionally constipated cohorts were analyzed separately. The effects of each treatment (ie Livaux™ and placebo) on microbial composition was determined by comparing the average abundance of each bacterial genus (>1% abundance in at least one of the 8 samples) following treatment with the average value before treatment. There were marked differences between the microbial composition of the healthy and functionally constipated subjects. Thirty-two genera were detected at >1% abundance in at least one sample, 10 of which differed significantly between the healthy and functionally constipated cohorts [28]. In agreement with other studies, the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteriodetes differed between the two groups: ratio in healthy subjects = 2.3 and ratio in functionally constipated subjects = 3.2. The most striking result was observed in the functionally constipated group, in which the relative abundance of F. prau increased by approximately two-fold in response to Livaux™ administration (3.4% to 7.0%; P = 0.024). The individual participant data is provided in Figure 2, which shows that 8 of the 9 subjects exhibited an overall increase in the % relative abundance of F. prau.

Preticx- 

• PreticX® is a new prebiotic XOS (xylooligosaccharide) that is non-GMO project verified and has been clinically shown to increase bifidobacteria in the colon and aid in healthy digestion, effective at low inclusion rates, making it a versatile and stable ingredient for use in both supplements and food products. • PreticX® was shown to decrease the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in recent UCLA studies 1,2An increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio has been suggested to be associated with over-weight gut microbiota3• PreticX® presents a compelling option in both foods and supplements to effectively target and promote growth of specific gut bacteria that is already present in the large intestine, with an ingredient that is safe, efficacious, stable, and presents few side effects.

A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study conducted by researchers at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), published in the Frontiers of Physiology1 which shows that daily doses as low as 1g of PreticX®, a XOS (xylooligosaccharide), significantly modified gut microbiota, helping to grow more species of good gut bacteria and reduce bad bacteria in both healthy people, and those who are over-weight with unhealthy blood glucose levels.

 

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2015.00216/full

Actazin-

ACTAZIN is a powdered ingredient derived from whole New Zealand green (Actinidia deliciosa Hayward) kiwifruit from which the skin and seeds are removed and the remaining flesh cold processed for use in dietary supplements for the support of digestive health. Contributing to the modes of action for ACTAZIN include the presence of bioactive substances including fiber, polyphenolics, and the kiwifruit-specific enzyme, actinidin. An additional mode of action of ACTAZIN is possibly due to its ability to serve as a substrate for endogenous gut bacteria. 

 A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, published in the journal Nutrition Research, displayed clinically significant benefits in a healthy cohort.

Gastrointestinal issues, including constipation, are common conditions worldwide in adults and children, which can severely affect the individual’s quality of life and feeling of general wellbeing. Gastrointestinal issues are regarded by many clinicians to be an underlying cause of a variety of illnesses.

Safety

ACTAZIN™ is a high-quality, food-grade ingredient that has been Non-GMO Project verified. ACTAZIN™ is made from kiwifruit, which is a long-established human food. The kiwifruit used to make ACTAZIN™ powder concentrate are supplied by Zespri® New Zealand, who have stringent safety, compliance and control systems in place with their growers to ensure the highest quality standards. No harmful solvents are used during manufacturing and every batch of ACTAZIN™ is tested to assure the quality and safety of the product. The ingredient is gluten-free, free of preservatives, and certified kosher and halal.

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f181/dd3731665f73bfc7f75fdac7aa0472957bfb.pdf

 

Colostrum-

Mother Nature’s first food for the developing microbiome in all mammals, our earliest and most potent influence on gut health and bacterial composition. Colostrum provides a cornucopia of nutrients, immunoglobulins, passive antibodies, and signaling peptides that Mother Nature has perfectly honed to protect the newborn infant from infection, and to help train and shape the emerging immune system so it can handle its environment. Ingesting colostrum establishes beneficial bacteria in the neonate’s digestive tract.[2]

Colostrum contains immunoglobulins such as IgG, IgA, IgM; the immune modulating molecule lactoferrin; fat-soluble vitamins including retinol, tocopherol, and beta-carotene; water soluble vitamins including niacin, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxine; and minerals such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, iron, copper and manganese. It contains whey proteins, oligosaccharides, immunoglobulins, growth factors including IGF-1, IGF-2, TGFbeta and EGF, prolactin, and insulin. Fresh colostrum also contains both essential and non-essential amino acids, enzymes, and commensal bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium. Finally, colostrum contains a rich array of novel, potent signaling peptides called proline-rich peptides (PRPs).

Colostrum helps the newborn gut develop a healthy microbiota. When our gut ecology becomes imbalanced, we experience dysbiosis. Then the delicate gut lining and associated lymphoid tissue becomes inflamed, leading to altered levels of permeability. That increased permeability can then result in microbial translocation–or the movement of toxins and gut microbes through the normally tight epithelial barrier of the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream. Microbial translocation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV, cirrhosis, atopic dermatitis and many other conditions.[3],[4],[5],[6]

Decreased permeability can lead to altered absorption of essential food components, a thickening of the lining, loss of the local villi and subsequent activation of the innate lymphoid cell, as bacteria have direct contact to the lining because of loss or decreased functionality of the mucus layer.[7]

Research shows that colostrum can restore a leaky gut lining to normal permeability levels.[8],[9] The immunoglobulins in colostrum are especially impressive at combatting gut pathogens, including H. pylori, E. coli and protozoan parasites and amoebas.[10],[11],[12] Antimicrobial effects are likely due to the presence of the antibody (immunoglobulin) complement system. In addition, research by David Tyrell, MD, in 1980, suggested that a high percentage of antibodies and immunoglobulins present in colostrum remain in the intestinal tract, where they attack pathogens.[13] A recent study on bovine colostrum suggested that it is a potential source of anti-infective glycans which might limit Campylobacter jejuni infection, the leading cause of acute bacterial infectious diarrhea in humans. Researchers found that bovine colostrum dramatically reduced the cellular invasion and translocation of C. jejuni, in a concentration dependent manner. Bovine colostrum also completely prevented C. jejuni binding to chicken intestinal mucin, in vitro.[14]

Bovine colostrum can restore the damage caused by anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to the gut lining. For instance, the anti-inflammatory NSAID indomethacin when used alone causes a three-fold increase in gut permeability. But when taken with colostrum by healthy volunteers, there is no increase in gut permeability. Researchers concluded that bovine colostrum may provide a novel approach to the prevention of NSAID induced gastrointestinal damage in humans.7

In another study, researchers determined that bovine colostrum is a rich source of tissue repair and growth factors, and limits gastrointestinal injury. Feeding with colostrum facilitated growth of the intestinal villi, assisting with the restoration of barriers that have become impermeable as well as too permeable. Only the colostrum casein fraction stimulated intestinal villus elongation, whereas the whey fraction and mature milk casein showed no such effect. Colostrum has therapeutic potential for intestinal inflammation.[15]

Colostrum enemas were effective in the treatment of distal colitis during a randomized, double-blind study. Fourteen patients with a mean age of 45 and mild to moderately severe distal colitis, were given colostrum enema or placebo enema for 4 weeks. Both groups also received the drug mesalazine. The colostrum group showed a mean reduction in symptom score of 2.9, while the group only on medication showed an increase of 0.5. Symptoms improved in five of the eight patients in the colostrum group and in two of the six patients in the placebo group. The researchers concluded that bovine colostrum enemas may be a novel adjunctive therapy for left-sided colitis along with standard treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs such as mesalazine.[16]

Lactoferrin is one of the main proteins in colostrum. High quality supplemental colostrum has over 1%. Lactoferrin binds free iron, which many bacteria and fungi need to reproduce. Lactoferrin can penetrate the cell wall of bacteria, which allows an antimicrobial enzyme in gastric secretions calls lysozyme to then enter the cell and cause it to burst. Together, lactoferrin and lysozyme can destroy Candida albicans.[17]

We know that nutrients are absorbed along the length of the small intestine, which is lined with millions of microscopic, finger-like projections called villi. Each villus is connected to a mesh of capillaries so that nutrients can pass into the bloodstream. Colostrum extract that contains bioactive components such as insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), enhances intestinal villus size and can modulate neonatal gastrointestinal tract development and function. Villus circumference and height in the small intestine, as well as epithelial cell proliferation, are higher in calves fed colostrum extract than in controls.[18]

According to a review article in 2011 on colostrum, a commercial product which is made from large standardized pools of colostrum collected from over 100 cows has been used to treat a number of diseases, including diarrhea caused by diarrheagenic E. coli. Bovine colostrum contains significant antimicrobial properties as a result of natural exposure of the cows to antigens of pathogens that may afflict humans as well.[19]

All colostrum and milk will contain some secretory IgA. The presence of secretory IgA in the intestinal lumen is part of the protective function of the epithelial barrier in the intestine and also plays an important role in maintaining ecological tolerance with the commensal bacteria. Milk and colostrum secretory IgA in the intestine will bind bacteria, toxins and other macromolecules, limiting their ability to bind to intestinal cells and thereby be transported through the mucosa to cause a systemic immune response.17 The mature stomach lining of an adult is of course more effective in digesting proteins and peptides than that of a newborn infant.

Fresh bovine colostrum has a natural phospholipid coating that enhances its properties, but this is lost during the processing of colostrum into a powder form. New research by biochemist Michail Borissenko, BSc, MSc, chief scientist at the Institute of Colostrum Research in New Zealand, suggests that coating bovine colostrum with high quality phospholipids during processing helps to make it more soluble and preserve it until it reaches the large intestine. Although bovine colostrum is generally well tolerated, colostrum with the phospholipid coating restored may possibly increase tolerance and benefit for sensitive individuals. Colostrum and phospholipids together might provide an ideal and stable source of the ultimate “mother’s milk” for healing the gut and restoring a healthy microbiome.

References:


[1] Arya Khosravi, Alberto Y·Òez, Jeremy G. Price, Andrew Chow, Miriam Merad, Helen S. Goodridge, Sarkis K. Mazmanian. Gut Microbiota Promote Hematopoiesis to Control Bacterial Infection. Cell Host & Microbe, March 2014 View Abstract

[2] Cilieborg MS, Boye M, Sangild PT. Bacterial colonization and gut development in preterm neonates Early Hum Dev. 2012 Mar;88 Suppl 1:S41-9 View Abstract

[3] Klatt NR, Funderburg NT, Brenchley JM. Microbial translocation, immune activation, and HIV disease. Trends Microbiol. 2013 Jan;21(1):6-13. View Abstract

[4] Tuomisto S, Pessi T, Collin P, Vuento R, Aittoniemi J, Karhunen PJ. Changes in gut bacterial populations and their translocation into liver and ascites in alcoholic liver cirrhotics. BMC Gastroenterol. 2014 Feb 24;14(1):40 View Abstract

[5] Dillon SM, Lee EJ, Kotter CV, Austin GL, Dong Z, Hecht DK, Gianella S, Siewe B, Smith DM, Landay AL, Robertson CE, Frank DN, Wilson CC. An altered intestinal mucosal microbiome in HIV-1 infection is associated with mucosal and systemic immune activation and endotoxemia. Mucosal Immunol. 2014 Jan 8.  View Abstract

[6] Raone B, Raboni R, Patrizi A. Probiotics reduce gut microbial translocation and improve adult atopic dermatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2014 Jan;48(1):95-6. View Abstract

[7] Ivanov II, Honda K. Intestinal commensal microbes as immune modulators. Cell Host Microbe. 2012 Oct 18;12(4):496-508. View Full Paper

[8] Prosser C, Stelwagen K, Cummins R, Guerin P, Gill N. Milne C. Reduction in heat induced gastrointestinal hyperpermeability in rats by bovine colostrum and goat milk powders. Journal of Applied Physiology 96:650-654 (2004). View Abstract

[9] Playford RJ, Floyd DN, Macdonald CE, et al. Bovine colostrum is a health food supplement which prevents NSAID induced gut damage. Gut 44:653-658 (1999) View Full Paper

[10] Korhonen H, Syvaoja EL, Ahola-Lutilla H, Silvela S, Kopola S, Hutsu J, Kosunen TU. Bactericidal effect of bovine normal and immune serum, colostrum and milk against Helicobacter pylori. Journal of Applied Bacgteriology 78(6):655-662 (1995)View Abstract

[11] Funatogawa K, Ide T, Kirikae F, Saruta K, Nakano M, Kirikae T. Use of immunoglobulin enriched bovine colostrum against oral challenge with enterohemorrhagic Eschericia coli O157:H7 in mice. Microbiology and Immunology 46(11):761-766 (2002) View Abstract

[12] Acosta-Altamirano G, Rocha-Ramirez LM, Reyes-Montes R, Cogte V. Santos Jl. Anti-amoebic properties of human colostrum. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 216B:1347-1352 (1987) View Abstrac

[13] Tyrell, D. Breastfeeding and virus infection: the immunity of infant feeding. New York. P{lenum Press. 1980, pp. 55-61

 

Glutamine-

Glutamine, the most abundant free amino acid in the human body, is a major substrate utilized by intestinal cells. The roles of glutamine in intestinal physiology and management of multiple intestinal diseases have been reported. In gut physiology, glutamine promotes enterocyte proliferation, regulates tight junction proteins, suppresses pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, and protects cells against apoptosis and cellular stresses during normal and pathologic conditions. As glutamine stores are depleted during severe metabolic stress including trauma, sepsis, and inflammatory bowel diseases, glutamine supplementation has been examined in patients to improve their clinical outcomes.

Slippery Elm

Slippery elm, or Ulmus rubra, is a tree native to the central and eastern United States and Ontario, Canada.

when the bark is mixed with water, it generates a sticky material known as mucilage, which is therapeutic and soothing to anything it touches. 

Slippery elm bark is a demulcent. This means that it is capable of soothing the lining of the stomach and intestines and reducing irritation. Demulcents are sometimes referred to as mucoprotective agents.

Recent studies have shown that slippery elm bark can help treat the symptoms associated with inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Marshmallow Root

Marshmallow root (Althaea officinalis) is a perennial herb that’s native to Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. It’s been used as a folk remedy for thousands of years to treat digestive, respiratory, and skin conditions.

Its healing powers are due in part to the mucilage it containsMarshmallow root may help soothe irritation and inflammation in the digestive tract.

An in vitro study from 2010 found that aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from marshmallow root can be used to treat irritated mucous membranes. Research suggests that the mucilage content creates a protective layer of tissue on the lining of the digestive tract. Marshmallow root may also stimulate the cells that support tissue regeneration.

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